What does blockchain exchange development mean?
The infrastructure of blockchain can be divided into six levels: from the bottom to the top: data layer, network layer, consensus layer, incentive layer, contract layer and application layer. Each layer completes a core function, and uses some technologies to ensure the normal operation of the whole blockchain system. Each layer cooperates and supports each other to achieve a decentralized trust mechanism, which is also the charm of blockchain.
However, through the study of Xiao Zhang and the summary of many materials, we believe that there is another underlying structure: encryption layer, which is also the cornerstone of blockchain technology, and provides the guarantee of the security and anonymity of the whole blockchain system. But some of the encryption technology in the encryption layer is really brain burning. In order to facilitate the understanding of non professionals, it is better to fuse the encryption layer in the data layer with most of the data for a brief introduction or follow-up articles.
Hierarchical structure of blockchain
1. Data layer: including the underlying data block and basic data, basic algorithm, etc. The data layer mainly describes the physical form of blockchain technology. It is a chain structure starting from the genesis block on the blockchain. Each block contains random numbers, timestamps, public and private key data on the block. It is the lowest level data structure in the whole blockchain technology.
2. Network layer: including distributed networking mechanism, data transmission mechanism and data verification mechanism. The main purpose of network layer is to realize information exchange between nodes in blockchain network. The network layer mainly realizes the mechanism of distributed network through P2P technology. The network layer includes P2P networking mechanism, data transmission mechanism and data verification mechanism. Therefore, blockchain is essentially a P2P (peer-to-peer) network with automatic networking mechanism. The communication between nodes is maintained by maintaining a common blockchain structure. Each node not only receives information, but also generates information.
3. Consensus layer: it mainly includes consensus algorithm and consensus mechanism, which is responsible for the effective identification and authentication of point-to-point pattern; consensus layer can make highly dispersed nodes reach a consensus on the effectiveness of block data efficiently in the decentralized blockchain network, which is one of the core technologies of blockchain and the governance mechanism of blockchain community. There are three common consensus mechanisms in blockchain: workload proof, equity proof and share authorization proof. Data layer, network layer and consensus layer are the necessary elements and core layer of building blockchain technology. Without any layer, it can not be called the real sense of blockchain technology.
4. Incentive level: mainly including the distribution system and the distribution system of economic incentive. The main function of incentive layer is to provide certain incentive measures and encourage nodes to participate in the security verification of blockchain. Incentive mechanism is necessary in the public chain. In the alliance chain, all the nodes have been certified by the organization, and there is no need for additional incentives. These nodes will spontaneously maintain the security and stability of the whole system.
In the public chain, nodes do not need to be authenticated, and can join and exit the network at any time. Bookkeeping needs to consume CPU, storage, bandwidth and other resources, so there needs to be a certain incentive mechanism to ensure that miners can have profits in the bookkeeping process, so as to ensure that the whole blockchain system is developing in a virtuous circle.
Take bitcoin as an example, there are two kinds of reward mechanisms: one is the bitcoin that the system rewards after the new block is generated before the total number of bitcoins reaches 21 million, and the other is the bitcoin (handling charge) deducted from each transaction. Second, when the total number of bitcoins reaches 21 million, the newly generated blocks will no longer generate bitcoins. At this time, the reward mechanism is mainly the service charge deducted from each transaction.
5. Contract layer: it mainly includes various scripts, codes, algorithm mechanisms and smart contracts. Contract layer is the basis of block chain programming. Responsible for specifying the transaction mode and process details: the blockchain mkz888z can be customized, which can be understood as a decentralized and tamperable account book, and the program code is also data, which can also be stored in the account book. Smart contract is a non tamperable program stored in the blockchain, which can automatically execute some pre-defined rules and terms and respond to the received information. After the release of the contract, its operation and maintenance will be handed over to the miners of the whole network to reach a consensus, which is the basis for the blockchain to trust.
6. Application layer: responsible for realizing all kinds of application scenarios of life. It includes various application scenarios and cases. For example, all kinds of blockchain technology applications built on Ethereum and EOS are deployed in the application layer and implemented in real life scenarios to enrich the ecology of the whole blockchain. The future programmable finance and programmable society will also be built in the application layer. Incentive layer, contract layer and application layer are not the necessary factors for each blockchain application, and some blockchain applications do not completely include the three-tier structure.